In the largest art education reform initiative to date, six art education institutes established since 1988 in Florida, Minnesota, Nebraska, Ohio, Tennessee, and Texas by the Getty Center for Education in the Arts supported discipline-based art programs in more than two hundred school districts in fifteen states, reaching close to a million students in kindergarten through twelfth grades. The institutes were based on findings from the Los Angeles Getty Institute for Educators on the Visual Arts (1982-1989), which served 1,300 teachers in twenty-one school districts in the Los Angeles area.
Adventures in Art -- Teacher's Edition. Laura Chapman. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc., (a set of six wire spiral, soft-bound, grade-specific methods books to be used with Adventures in Art student books). Teachers College, Columbia University holds a symposium on “The Arts in School Reform” with papers by Rika Burnham, Judith M. Burton, Marjorie B. Franklin, John Gilmour, Maxine Greene and Philip Jacksons. Papers published in the Teachers College Record Volume 95, Number 4, Summer 1994.
British Columbia, Ontario and Nova Scotia announced compulsory fine arts credit for high school graduation.
Clare Golomb in The Child's Creation of a Pictorial World provided extensive parallels between development of imagery in sculpture as well as drawing.
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) was formed in order to offer recognition for exemplary or accomplished secondary teachers, art included, Elementary certification follows later. Brent Wilson, Al Hurwitz and Ray Campeau were among the planners of the program.
Glyn V. Thomas & Angelo M. J. Silk An Introduction to the Psychology of Children's Drawings summarized and classified theories and research findings entered up such basic issues as why children draw, role of emotions, motives, the role of subconscious in drawing, the emergence and significance of symbols and other concerns. Personalities were listed which are spokespersons for various points of view. Judith M. Burton becomes Director of Art and Art Education at Teachers College, Columbia University with a mandate to rebuild the program to its former position as a leading voice for humanistic education in the field of art education.
America 2000, a status report on education in the country, was issued by the U.S. governors and President George Bush. After initial failure to mention the arts and the resultant protest, the report included arts in national goals statements.
President George Bush declared the 1990's as the "Decade of the Brain." An acceleration of research follows, much of it supporting Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence's. If art education could be said to be producing a "best seller" in this period, it was Betty Edwards' Drawing On The Right Side of the Brain.
The Australian Education Council publishes Common and Agreed National Goals for Australian Schooling recommending a national approach to curriculum and includes art as one of the components.
The Getty Center established art education institutes in Florida, Minnesota, Nebraska, Ohio, Tennessee, and Texas. They supported discipline-based art programs in more than two hundred school districts in fifteen states, reaching close to one million K-12 students.
The National Endowment for the Arts publishes Towards Civilization: A Report on Arts Education, which attempted to reveal the status of the arts in education in the United States. It recommended that the NAEP be reinstated.
The Rainbow Connection Art Gallery in New York was founded for the purpose of showcasing work by artists from 8 to 18 that are priced from $100 to $5000. The director and founder was Delores Welch Tyson.
A collection of essays, edited by Judith M. Burton, Arlene Lederman and Peter London, offers the first major critique of discipline based art education in the USA.
The NAEA, during its 40th anniversary, sponsored Ralph Smith's Excellence in Art Education: Ideas and Initiatives. Smith states a case for critical study of art works because it questions the traditional belief in the centrality of studio based activities. The slow erosion of belief in the importance of creative activity began at the Penn. State Seminar in 1965 and proved to be an antecedent of the J. Paul Getty sponsored Discipline Based Art Education (DBAE) philosophy.
Art In Action, Guy Hubbard. San Diego: Coronado Publishers, 1987 (a set of eight hardbound text/activity books, each with a different cover color, for elementary and junior high/ middle school students -- use of books not specific by grade level notation but is to be teacher-determined by the level of difficulty of the text therein). 8 Colored Covers.
Art In Action - Teachers' Manual. Guy Hubbard. San Diego: Coronado Publishers, 1987, (a set of eight wire spiral-bound, soft-cover manuals -- covers colored to match appropriate student texts).
Teaching Drawing from Art by Brent Wilson, Al Hurwitz and Marjorie Wilson had two major areas of content - the development of drawing that was influenced by culture-based graphic biases and the uses of art history as a basis for drawing activity. The nine biases or geographic principles which shape children's drawings were the lack of overlapping characteristic points of view, (front, full figures and profile) non differentiation of parts, intuitive, balance, influence of peers and so on.
Scotland's attempt to expand the parameters of art education beyond art making could be seen in the Critical Studies in Art Education Project for the schools which supported such activities as sketches and photographs with annotated comments, concept maps, illustrating relationships among ideas, imagined letters to artists as well as interviews catalogue notes for imagined exhibitions, video sequences, storyboards, multi-media presentations, articles on openings of art openings.
Discover Art, Laura Chapman. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc., (a set of six hard-bound, grade-specific elementary text/activity guide books). Grades 1 - 6.