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2004

In her book Uncovering the History of Children's Drawing and Art, Donna Darling Kelly introduced two paradigms for the study of children's art, which she refers to as the "Mirror and Window." In the former, psychologists regard child art as a lens through which they can learn about the interior mind of a child and in the window, child art was studied and enjoyed for its aesthetic and artistic values. These two views are related to one of art education's perennial debates regarding product (the degree of success of an artwork) versus process, (the personal values gained by the child while executing the work.) Samuel Hope, a music educator, in his article "Art Education in a World of Class Purposes" took a stand against negative aspects of youth culture such as the desire for simplicity and sensation, rejection of any sort of evaluations and problems posed by the use of drugs and the substitution of slogans for serious discussion. Peter London and George Czekely exemplified alternate philosophies of art education. London for his belief in the spiritual nature of artistic expression, and Czekely for his use of theatrical activity rituals and unconventional forms of motivation. Peter London's third book Drawing Closer to Nature presented a holistic paradigm of art education that stressed the spiritual nature of artistic creativity. His ideas were developed in classroom situations with the support and assistance of Karen Carrol, Dean of Art Education at the Maryland Institute College of Art.

2001

Gene Blocker directed a conference to define the meaning or meanings of multi-cultural issues in art education. The proceedings were published in the "Journal of Aesthetic Education" and make a valuable contribution to the professional literature of art education. Professional gatherings often provided major sources of information not readily available in conventional literature. Example, the Penn State Seminar (1965) which moved to be an antecedent of the Discipline Based Art Educators movement and "The Arts in Their Infancy" held at the Maryland Institute College of Art.

1648

The Academie de Peinture et Sculpture created a model for 17th and 18th Century establishments which followed. They used a method of instruction based upon the use of engravings of figures studies as models. Each aspect of the human form -- eyes, nose, mouth and limbs -- were treated separately before attempting a full figure. This system was still in use in the Maryland Institute of Art in the 1920's.

The Academie des Arts in Paris required the use of plaster casts in its drawing classes, which is introduced in this country in 1902 at the New York Academy of Fine Arts.

As a result of the formation of the French Academy of Painting and Sculpture the guilds system was greatly weakened and the teaching of drawing was forbidden anywhere outside of the Academy. In addition to drawing, the academy offered anatomy, arithmetic, architecture, history, geometry, perspective, pictorial analysis and astronomy. By 1663, all court painters had to join the Academy, which dictated what and how the members would paint. Teachers of drawing were rotated monthly. First-level students copied the works of their teachers, followed by the use of plaster casts and finishing with drawing from life. Whatever the students learned was applied to mythology, allegories, and historical subjects. Two treatises which served as texts were Andre Felibien's Conversations on the Lives and Works of the Most Excellent Ancient and Modern Painters (1666) and Roger de Piles's Balance des Peintures (1708), which evaluated painters' works using a point system.

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