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  • Visual Culture

2006

The 50th Anniversary of the textbook Children and Their Art by Charles Gaitskill, Al Hurwitz and Mickey Day (in later editions) was celebrated. This makes Children and Their Art the art education text with the greatest longevity. It was the most read and least quoted text in the field as opposed to John Dewey who was the most quoted least read figure in art education.

2006

For more details on Canada art education history see From Drawing to Visual Culture: A History of Art Education in Canada, edited by Harold Pearse (2006) and published by McGill-Queen's University Press: Montreal & Kingston, London, Ithaca.

2006

Advanced Placement Program in art begun in 1970 evaluated twenty-seven thousand portfolios with over a hundred art teachers to grade the portfolios.

2005

The differences between visual cultures and modernist art education was stated succinctly by Olivia Gude writing in Art Education: The Journal of the NAEA. Instead of drawing from elements and principles of art (line, form, composition, color rhythms, shape, texture, etc.) Gude suggested a new vocabularym one based upon "appropriation, juxtapositions, recontextualisation, layering interaction of image and text, hybridity, gazing and representing.” The fiftieth anniversary of the CSEA was celebrated at the national conference held in Edmonton, Alberta.

2004

In her book Uncovering the History of Children's Drawing and Art, Donna Darling Kelly introduced two paradigms for the study of children's art, which she refers to as the "Mirror and Window." In the former, psychologists regard child art as a lens through which they can learn about the interior mind of a child and in the window, child art was studied and enjoyed for its aesthetic and artistic values. These two views are related to one of art education's perennial debates regarding product (the degree of success of an artwork) versus process, (the personal values gained by the child while executing the work.) Samuel Hope, a music educator, in his article "Art Education in a World of Class Purposes" took a stand against negative aspects of youth culture such as the desire for simplicity and sensation, rejection of any sort of evaluations and problems posed by the use of drugs and the substitution of slogans for serious discussion. Peter London and George Czekely exemplified alternate philosophies of art education. London for his belief in the spiritual nature of artistic expression, and Czekely for his use of theatrical activity rituals and unconventional forms of motivation. Peter London's third book Drawing Closer to Nature presented a holistic paradigm of art education that stressed the spiritual nature of artistic creativity. His ideas were developed in classroom situations with the support and assistance of Karen Carrol, Dean of Art Education at the Maryland Institute College of Art.

2003

Michael Parsons reviewed the history of theories of artistic development and concluded that the linear models of Piaget and Lowenfeld cannot be defended in postmodern contexts. In its stead, he argued Parsons' change in children's art resembled a tree with many branches rather than a single path of growth, which was shaped by western, modern goals based upon a realistic depiction of the world. "Endpoint, Repertoires and Toolboxes. Development in Art as the Acquisitions of Tools." Tools were used as a metaphor for the diversity of conditions that influenced change in child art.

2002

In Art and Cognition Arthur Efland, like many of his colleagues, was concerned about the acquisition of knowledge and the multiple ways of gaining artistic comprehension. Cognition and inquiry were both major concerns in the 1950's. In the case of cognitive theory, the impetus came from Jean Piaget and Barbel Inhelder, psychologists who worked outside the the art education establishment, and Arthur Efland and Elliot Eisner who wrote from within the field.

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