Educational and Industrial Drawing: London S. Thompson. Boston: D.C. Heath & Company. Manual Training Series (two manuals), Primary Free Hand Series and Manual, Advanced Free Hand Series (four drawing books), Model and Object Series and Manual (Manual 1895), Aesthetic Series (six drawing books and manual) No. 2 Drawing book, Mechanical Series (six drawing books and manual).
The 50th Anniversary of the textbook Children and Their Art by Charles Gaitskill, Al Hurwitz and Mickey Day (in later editions) was celebrated. This makes Children and Their Art the art education text with the greatest longevity. It was the most read and least quoted text in the field as opposed to John Dewey who was the most quoted least read figure in art education.
In her book Uncovering the History of Children's Drawing and Art, Donna Darling Kelly introduced two paradigms for the study of children's art, which she refers to as the "Mirror and Window." In the former, psychologists regard child art as a lens through which they can learn about the interior mind of a child and in the window, child art was studied and enjoyed for its aesthetic and artistic values. These two views are related to one of art education's perennial debates regarding product (the degree of success of an artwork) versus process, (the personal values gained by the child while executing the work.) Samuel Hope, a music educator, in his article "Art Education in a World of Class Purposes" took a stand against negative aspects of youth culture such as the desire for simplicity and sensation, rejection of any sort of evaluations and problems posed by the use of drugs and the substitution of slogans for serious discussion. Peter London and George Czekely exemplified alternate philosophies of art education. London for his belief in the spiritual nature of artistic expression, and Czekely for his use of theatrical activity rituals and unconventional forms of motivation. Peter London's third book Drawing Closer to Nature presented a holistic paradigm of art education that stressed the spiritual nature of artistic creativity. His ideas were developed in classroom situations with the support and assistance of Karen Carrol, Dean of Art Education at the Maryland Institute College of Art.
Under NAEA sponsorship, Elliot W. Eisner and Michael Day edited the Handbook for Research and Policy in Art Education. At 879 pages it is the most compendious book published in art education. Its 36 chapters and 30 contributors cover major issues from history and assessment to speculations on the future of art education.
In Art and Cognition Arthur Efland, like many of his colleagues, was concerned about the acquisition of knowledge and the multiple ways of gaining artistic comprehension. Cognition and inquiry were both major concerns in the 1950's. In the case of cognitive theory, the impetus came from Jean Piaget and Barbel Inhelder, psychologists who worked outside the the art education establishment, and Arthur Efland and Elliot Eisner who wrote from within the field.
Clare Golomb in The Child's Creation of a Pictorial World provided extensive parallels between development of imagery in sculpture as well as drawing.
Glyn V. Thomas & Angelo M. J. Silk An Introduction to the Psychology of Children's Drawings summarized and classified theories and research findings entered up such basic issues as why children draw, role of emotions, motives, the role of subconscious in drawing, the emergence and significance of symbols and other concerns. Personalities were listed which are spokespersons for various points of view. Judith M. Burton becomes Director of Art and Art Education at Teachers College, Columbia University with a mandate to rebuild the program to its former position as a leading voice for humanistic education in the field of art education.
Teaching Drawing from Art by Brent Wilson, Al Hurwitz and Marjorie Wilson had two major areas of content - the development of drawing that was influenced by culture-based graphic biases and the uses of art history as a basis for drawing activity. The nine biases or geographic principles which shape children's drawings were the lack of overlapping characteristic points of view, (front, full figures and profile) non differentiation of parts, intuitive, balance, influence of peers and so on.
Al Hurwitz wrote The Gifted and Talented in Art: A Guide to Program Planning (Davis Publications). Alexander Alland, of Columbia University authored Playing with Form: Children Draw in Six Cultures. Alland studied the drawings of preschool children of six countries: Japan, Taiwan, Micronesia (Panopea), Bali, France and the U.S. Some findings were as follows: Papean children do not undergo the scribbling stage. Children in Bali and Ponape were not interested in telling stories. Balinese children received instruction in all arts, but visual art. Taiwanese children had wide exposure to museums, performances, etc. Although art instruction was minimal at the time Alland wrote, today art is now an accepted part of the curriculum. Japan had a program rich in variety of media, and drawings from the US had an "aggressive quality." Alland's book calls into question the universal assumptions of developmental stage theories.
The first class of the NAEA distinguished Fellows was installed. Hilda Lewis' Tools and Tasks: The Place of Developmental Studies, An Open Letter to Brent and Marjorie Wilson. Lewis accepted most of the Wilson's criticism of developmental stage theory but argued that traditional views of the theory can be useful for the study of children's drawing in transition. Marjorie Wilson and Brent Wilson The Case of the Disappearing Two Eye Profile or How Little Children Influence the Drawings of Little Children. At least eight researchers acknowledged two eyed profiles that they saw as part of a natural stage. The Wilsons noted in their article that the two eyed profile which has waned was the result of peer influence and that the influence of adults also contributed to its decline. The same year this article was published, the Wilsons and Al Hurwitz wrote Teaching Children to Draw: A Guide for Parents and Teachers, which redefined certain graphic principles shared by western children such as the use of X-ray lines, multiple views of the same subject, peer influences, and media influence. The Wilsons urge adults to show children examples of drawing that are slightly more advanced in order to serve as a motivational strategy for art making. Ellen Winner, Invented Worlds: The Psychology of Arts. The author described her own developmental stages theory. She faulted previous researchers for not paying more attention to the importance of western bias that assumed that naturalistic representations was the end point of development. She offered five stages of change for children: scribbling, pre-representational design, use of proportion in drawings, more coherent representations and natural or optical realism. Like others she discussed the x-ray symbol, perpendicular structure and non-overlapping forms. She also mentioned the repleteness factor mentioned by Howard Gardner and cautioned against arguments confusing children’s art with work of adults.