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  • Artists
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  • Alberti, Leon Battista
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  • Family, Carracci
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  • Visual Culture

1893-1895

Educational and Industrial Drawing: London S. Thompson. Boston: D.C. Heath & Company. Manual Training Series (two manuals), Primary Free Hand Series and Manual, Advanced Free Hand Series (four drawing books), Model and Object Series and Manual (Manual 1895), Aesthetic Series (six drawing books and manual) No. 2 Drawing book, Mechanical Series (six drawing books and manual).

1658

Comenius, a Czechoslovakian reformer, scholar, and theologian, writes Orbis Sensualium Pictus.  It was the first effort to introduce pictures into books destined for educational purposes. 

1994

Adventures in Art -- Teacher's Edition. Laura Chapman. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc., (a set of six wire spiral, soft-bound, grade-specific methods books to be used with Adventures in Art student books). Teachers College, Columbia University holds a symposium on “The Arts in School Reform” with papers by Rika Burnham, Judith M. Burton, Marjorie B. Franklin, John Gilmour, Maxine Greene and Philip Jacksons. Papers published in the Teachers College Record Volume 95, Number 4, Summer 1994.

1982

The first class of the NAEA distinguished Fellows was installed. Hilda Lewis' Tools and Tasks: The Place of Developmental Studies, An Open Letter to Brent and Marjorie Wilson. Lewis accepted most of the Wilson's criticism of developmental stage theory but argued that traditional views of the theory can be useful for the study of children's drawing in transition. Marjorie Wilson and Brent Wilson The Case of the Disappearing Two Eye Profile or How Little Children Influence the Drawings of Little Children. At least eight researchers acknowledged two eyed profiles that they saw as part of a natural stage. The Wilsons noted in their article that the two eyed profile which has waned was the result of peer influence and that the influence of adults also contributed to its decline. The same year this article was published, the Wilsons and Al Hurwitz wrote Teaching Children to Draw: A Guide for Parents and Teachers, which redefined certain graphic principles shared by western children such as the use of X-ray lines, multiple views of the same subject, peer influences, and media influence. The Wilsons urge adults to show children examples of drawing that are slightly more advanced in order to serve as a motivational strategy for art making. Ellen Winner, Invented Worlds: The Psychology of Arts. The author described her own developmental stages theory. She faulted previous researchers for not paying more attention to the importance of western bias that assumed that naturalistic representations was the end point of development. She offered five stages of change for children: scribbling, pre-representational design, use of proportion in drawings, more coherent representations and natural or optical realism. Like others she discussed the x-ray symbol, perpendicular structure and non-overlapping forms. She also mentioned the repleteness factor mentioned by Howard Gardner and cautioned against arguments confusing children’s art with work of adults.

1978

Another Look - Teachers' Edition, Mary Ross Townley. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, (a set of three soft-bound teachers' guidebooks to be used with the student workbooks of the series). Comprehensive, condensed volume for levels A through C.

1966

The first attempt to deal with art appreciation via televised instruction was developed by a committee headed by Manuel Barkan and Laura Chapman. Al Hurwitz and Hilda Persent Lewis were also participants in the guideline. Guy Hubbard and Mary Rouse's six book series Art: Meaning, Method and Media presents graded instructional material for the upper elementary grades. My World of Art. Blanche Jefferson. Grades 1-6. 92 tear-out pages of Starter sheets with an image to inspire further creative expression. Illustrations were by contemporary artists and old masters. Activities were supplemented with extended projects in teacher's manual.

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