In Prussia and Bavaria art schools are intended to serve industry with a completely different orientation from England's Royal Academy of Art begun by Joshua Reynolds. Reynolds breaks ranks with entrenched ideas regarding ideal form and urges his students to draw exactly what is seen, warts and all.
Phyllis Gold Gluck wrote the only study of the Educational Alliance, the major art school for immigrants and their children in Remembering Others: Making Invisible Histories of Art Education Visible (Bolin, Blank and Congdon.)
Post graduate programs (MA and MFA) were established at Sir George Williams University (later Concordia) in Montreal, York University in Toronto, The Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Halifax and the Universities of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan.
At the time the Nazis closed the Bauhaus School of Art in Dessau Germany the Owatonna Project was getting underway in the United States. Under the direction of Edwin Ziegfeld, who would later to chair the Art Education Program at Teachers College, Columbia University, Bauhaus faculty members who came to the U.S. and who were to have an important influence on American art and art education were Josef Albers who taught at Yale, Gyorgy Kepes and Walter Gropius (Harvard) and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (Illinois Institute of Design). In their books and in their teaching they advanced Arthur Dow's conception of design adding to it the practice of experimentation and a regard for the practical, functional use of design, ranging from architecture to crafts. By the time Bauhause has to move to a more permanent setting at the Institute of Design in Chicago, the ideas begun in Germany began to exert an influence in the curricula of a growing number of American art programs.
Salomon Reinach's revised edition of his history of art Apollo did not recognize Van Gogh or Gauguin. His reluctance to recognize the cutting edge of European art was also reflected in art schools, among them the Maryland Institute of Art.
New York's School Art League organized as a separate society from the Art League of the Public Educational Association. Paul Poiret, a designer of fashionable clothing for women, founded the Ecole Martine, an art school for working class 13-year-old girls. The students drew freely from the Parisian environment and then used their work as a basis in designing wallpaper at Poiret's shop.
Canadian art schools were founded such as The Winnipeg School of Art in 1913, the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Montreal and Quebec in 1922, the Vancouver School of Art in 1925 and Calgary's Alberta College of Art in 1926.
One of the first headmasters of the Glasgow School of Art was Francis Newberry, an administrator and educator notable for his innovations. In the Glasgow school women learned life drawing. Newberry set up the Technical Art Studies, supported Froebelian style child centered education and resisted the dominance of England's South Kensington system. He enrolled the first female architectural student in Scotland and was a strong believer in the whole of instinct in the creative process. In response to the emerging interest in school decorations, the Boston Public School Art League, an American counterpart to Britain's "Art For Schools Association" (1883) was formed and four years later the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences held an art exhibition of works deemed appropriate for public school settings.
George Hurth published Ideas About the Teaching of Drawing. As publisher of the Art Nouveau Journal "Youth" (Jugend) Hurth praised the innate talent of youngsters, called for reform in methods of teaching, and recommended rapid gestural drawing. He is one of the earliest theorists who demonstrated an interest in stage theory within an artistic context. He made a strong case for the importance of color, claiming we are interested in color before we are in forms and shapes. Hurth was a strong believer in children's innate talent and feels that the teaching of art must be reformed. He also advocated teaching for artistic invention. Alfred Lichtwark in Art in School developed the parallel between the art of children and that of primitive man. The Victoria School of Art and Design (later the Canada Nova Scotia College of Art and Design) founded in Halifax, Nova Scotia. A cofounder and one of the Directors of the school was Anna Leonowens, who lived in Halifax from 1876 to 1897 and who had taught at the court of the King of Siam from 1862 to 1867.
The Use of Models; A Teacher's Assistant in the Use of the Prang Models for Form Study and Drawing in Primary Schools was published; Mary Dana Hicks, author. June 24, Henry Turner Bailey graduated from Massachusetts Normal Art School.