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  • Visual Culture

2001

Gene Blocker directed a conference to define the meaning or meanings of multi-cultural issues in art education. The proceedings were published in the "Journal of Aesthetic Education" and make a valuable contribution to the professional literature of art education. Professional gatherings often provided major sources of information not readily available in conventional literature. Example, the Penn State Seminar (1965) which moved to be an antecedent of the Discipline Based Art Educators movement and "The Arts in Their Infancy" held at the Maryland Institute College of Art.

1974

Claire Golomb in Children's Sculpture and Drawing provided the first record of developmental skills in clay, so that comparisons between drawing and three-dimensional form could be studied. She discussed "romancing" or the talk children engage in as they draw and "initiative action," or the use of the body as it reinforced and reflected the life of a drawing. The conceptual basis for two and three-dimensional work was shared with greater detail than was used in drawing. In neither case did children feel their subjects must be complete in adult terms. Brent Wilson's article The Superheroes of J. C. Holz: Plus an Outline of a Theory of Child Art was a pioneer query into the stories and themes children use. It was based upon discussions with ten year old J. C. Holz, and analyzed much of the child's work. Wilson concluded that art helped children cope with boredom and satisfied their craving for excitement. There was a marked shift away from Teepees and Totem Poles in suggested activities in School Arts and Arts & Activities magazines.

1970

Thirty-five institutions were offering doctorates in art history. Scholastic Art formerly Art & Man was published and was for secondary level students. Rhoda Kellogg studied 8,000 drawings in her search for varieties of expression within each stage of growth. As an example, Kellogg described 20 kinds of scribbles and seventeen patterns of placement of forms on the paper claims that classifications are universal. Current thinking runs contrary to this belief and stresses the role played by the many contents of a culture. Alland, the Wilsons, Deregowski, Freeman and others all reject the idea of clean boundaries within stages of growth.

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