Educational and Industrial Drawing: London S. Thompson. Boston: D.C. Heath & Company. Manual Training Series (two manuals), Primary Free Hand Series and Manual, Advanced Free Hand Series (four drawing books), Model and Object Series and Manual (Manual 1895), Aesthetic Series (six drawing books and manual) No. 2 Drawing book, Mechanical Series (six drawing books and manual).
In Prussia and Bavaria art schools are intended to serve industry with a completely different orientation from England's Royal Academy of Art begun by Joshua Reynolds. Reynolds breaks ranks with entrenched ideas regarding ideal form and urges his students to draw exactly what is seen, warts and all.
The differences between visual cultures and modernist art education was stated succinctly by Olivia Gude writing in Art Education: The Journal of the NAEA. Instead of drawing from elements and principles of art (line, form, composition, color rhythms, shape, texture, etc.) Gude suggested a new vocabularym one based upon "appropriation, juxtapositions, recontextualisation, layering interaction of image and text, hybridity, gazing and representing.” The fiftieth anniversary of the CSEA was celebrated at the national conference held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Phil Pearson's Towards a Theory of Children's Drawing as Social Practice (article). The author moved the psychologically based background of drawing to a social arena preferring to explore the reasons children draw to play, seek approval, pursue a particular interest, love of narrative and coping with boredom and all serving specific functions.
Drawing is listed as a required subject in school exams in three cities in Greece. The main subject in art was life drawing, which was consistent with Aristotle's belief that the goal of drawing instruction was to build awareness of the beauty of the human form. This idea declined in the Middle Ages, but was revived in the Renaissance.
Clare Golomb in The Child's Creation of a Pictorial World provided extensive parallels between development of imagery in sculpture as well as drawing.
Glyn V. Thomas & Angelo M. J. Silk An Introduction to the Psychology of Children's Drawings summarized and classified theories and research findings entered up such basic issues as why children draw, role of emotions, motives, the role of subconscious in drawing, the emergence and significance of symbols and other concerns. Personalities were listed which are spokespersons for various points of view. Judith M. Burton becomes Director of Art and Art Education at Teachers College, Columbia University with a mandate to rebuild the program to its former position as a leading voice for humanistic education in the field of art education.
Teaching Drawing from Art by Brent Wilson, Al Hurwitz and Marjorie Wilson had two major areas of content - the development of drawing that was influenced by culture-based graphic biases and the uses of art history as a basis for drawing activity. The nine biases or geographic principles which shape children's drawings were the lack of overlapping characteristic points of view, (front, full figures and profile) non differentiation of parts, intuitive, balance, influence of peers and so on.
Henri Michaux Essais d'enfants: Dessins D'Enfants (Children's Efforts: Children's Drawings). Michaux's ideas were unlike most of those of others. They were somewhat eccentric personal insights. Ex: He likens the love of circles to a child's "first drug." Sven Anderson Local Conventions in Children's Drawing: A Comparative Study in Three Cultures. The author asked Tanzanian, Swedish and African fifth graders to draw a house. The 232 drawings revealed one major difference between African and Western children was the placement of windows - Africans used the corners of buildings and Swedish the center areas. Anderson saw the African placement as a local convention.
Gilbert A. Clark’s Drawing Abilities Art Test was used for the first time at the Indiana Summer Arts Institute. Results on a 1-5 scale are based upon performance in four categories showed: sensory properties (shape, line, texture, value), formal properties (rhythm, balance, unity, composition), expressive properties (mood and originality) and technical properties (technique and correctness of solution.)