• Era
  • Any Era
  • 400BC
  • 200BC
  • First century
  • Middle Ages
  • Renaissance
  • 13th century
  • 14th century
  • 15th century
  • 16th century
  • 17th century
  • 18th century
  • 19th century
  • 20th century
  • 21st century
  • Historical Events
  • Any Historical Event
  • American Revolution
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Russian Revolution
  • Vietnam War
  • World War I
  • World War II
  • Country
  • Any Country
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Canada
  • China
  • England
  • Europe
  • France
  • Germany
  • Great Britain
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Norway
  • Russia
  • Switzerland
  • USA
  • City
  • Any City
  • Baltimore
  • Berlin
  • Boston
  • Charlotte
  • Chicago
  • Cincinnati
  • Cleveland
  • Florence
  • Halifax
  • London
  • Montreal
  • Moscow
  • New York
  • Paris
  • Philadelphia
  • Rome
  • Sicyon
  • St. Louis
  • Venice
  • Vienna
  • Washington, D.C.
  • Artists
  • Any Artist
  • Alberti, Leon Battista
  • Arp, Hans
  • Bakst, Leon
  • Bannister, Edward Mitchell
  • Bell, Vanessa
  • Bonvin, Francois
  • Brun, Charles Le
  • Carracci, Ludovico
  • Cennini, Cennino
  • Cezanne, Paul
  • Chapman, John Gadsby
  • Church, Frederic
  • Cole, Thomas
  • Cornell, Joseph
  • Courbet, Gustave
  • Cozens, Alexander
  • da Vinci, Leonardo
  • De Chirico, Giorgio
  • de Honnecourt, Villard
  • Dreier, Katherine
  • Duchamp, Marcel
  • Dunlap, William
  • Durer, Albrecht
  • Ernst, Max
  • Family, Carracci
  • Francesca, Piero della
  • Fraser, Charles
  • Fry, Roger
  • Gauguin, Paul
  • Goncharova, Natalia
  • Goya, Francisco
  • Grant, Duncan
  • Hartley, Marsden
  • Homer, Winslow
  • Kandinsky, Wassily
  • Klee, Paul
  • Klimt, Gustav
  • Kokoschka, Oskar
  • Laliberte, Norman
  • Landseer, Edwin Henry
  • Larionov, Mikhail
  • Lismer, Arthur
  • London, Peter
  • Marin, John
  • Matisse, Henri
  • Michelangelo
  • Millet, Jean-Francois
  • Minifie, William
  • Modigliani, Amedeo
  • Monet, Claude
  • Morse, Samuel F.B.
  • O'Keefe, Georgia
  • Peale, Charles Willson
  • Peale, Rembrandt
  • Picasso, Pablo
  • Pollock, Jackson
  • Raphael
  • Ray, Man
  • Redgrave, Richard
  • Reynolds, Joshua
  • Rigby, Ivan
  • Rousseau, Henri
  • Rush, William
  • Ruskin, John
  • Schiele, Egon
  • Scott, Marion
  • Seurat, Georges-Pierre
  • Shevchenko, Aleksandr
  • Smith, John Rubens
  • Steichen, Edward
  • Stieglitz, Alfred
  • Topffer, Rodolphe
  • Trumbull, John
  • Turner, Ross
  • Van Gogh, Vincent
  • Vasari, Giorgio
  • Walkowitz, Abraham
  • Wells, James
  • Whistler, James McNeill
  • Woodruff, Hale
  • Educators
  • Any Educator
  • Barnard, Henry
  • Barnes, Earl
  • Blow, Susan
  • Counts, George S.
  • de Garmo, Charles
  • Eisner, Elliot
  • Fowle, William Bentley
  • Froebel, Friedrich
  • Gardner, Howard
  • Goodenough, Florence
  • Hall, G. Stanley
  • Holt, John
  • Hoppin, James Mason
  • Horne, Esther Burnett
  • Kellogg, Rhoda
  • Kerschensteiner, George
  • Krusi, Herman
  • Mann, Horace
  • Parker, Francis Wayland
  • Peabody, Elizabeth
  • Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich
  • Rugg, Harold
  • Ryerson, Egerton
  • Schurz, Margarethe
  • Snedden, David
  • Thorndike, Edward
  • Willard, Emma
  • Philosophers
  • Any Philosopher
  • Alcott, Amos Bronson
  • Aristotle
  • Dewey, John
  • Greene, Maxine
  • Kant, Emmanuel
  • Lanier, Vincent
  • Locke, John
  • Munro, Thomas
  • Piaget, Jean
  • Plutarch
  • Read, Herbert
  • Rousseau, Jean-Jacques
  • Schiller, Friedrich
  • Spencer, Herbert
  • Steiner, Rudolf
  • Art Educators
  • Any Art Educator
  • Ablett, T. R.
  • Albers, Josef
  • Arnheim, Rudolf
  • Bailey, Henry Turner
  • Barkan, Manuel
  • Bartholomew, William N.
  • Brandeis, Friedl Dicker
  • Brandtner, Frtiz
  • Burton, Judith M.
  • Cane, Florence
  • Catterson-Smith, Robert
  • Cizek, Franz
  • Cole, Natalie
  • Cooke, Ebenezer
  • D'Amico, Victor
  • Day, Michael
  • de Boisbaudran, Horace Lecoq
  • Dow, Arthur Wesley
  • Efland, Arthur
  • Farnum, Royal Bailey
  • Gaitskell, Charles
  • Gill, Harry Pelling
  • Greer, W. Dwaine
  • Grigsby, J. Eugene
  • Gropius, Walter
  • Haggerty, Melvin
  • Harris, Mary
  • Hicks, Mary Dana
  • Hurwitz, Al
  • Itten, Johannes
  • Johnstone, William
  • Kepes, Gyorgy
  • Landis, Mildred
  • Lange, Konrad
  • Lemos, Pedro J.
  • Lichtwark, Alfred
  • London, Peter
  • Lowenfeld, Viktor
  • MacDonald, Rosabel
  • Manzella, David
  • Mathias, Margaret
  • McFee, June King
  • Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo
  • Norton, Charles Eliot
  • Rouse, Mary J.
  • Sargent, Walter
  • Savage, Anne
  • Schaefer-Simmern, Henry
  • Schmid (or Schmidt), Peter
  • Schwalbach, James
  • Shaw, Ruth Faison
  • Silke, Lucy
  • Smith, Ralph
  • Smith, Walter
  • Tadd, J. Liberty
  • Tessin, Louise D.
  • Tomlinson, Reginald Robert
  • Viola, Wilhelm
  • Weir, Irene
  • Wilson, Brent
  • Wilson, Marjorie
  • Winner, Ellen
  • Winslow, Leon Loyal
  • Ziegfeld, Edwin
  • Institution
  • Any Institution
  • Academies
  • American Academy of the Fine Arts
  • American Museum of Natural History
  • Amherst College
  • Art Institute of Chicago
  • Art Schools
  • Art Students' League of New York
  • Barnes Foundation/Barnes Collection
  • Bowdoin College
  • Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences
  • Columbia University/Teachers College
  • Cooper Union
  • Dartmouth
  • Ecole Martine
  • French Academy of Painting and Sculpture
  • George Washington University
  • Getty Center for Education in the Arts
  • Hampton Institute
  • Harvard
  • Hull House
  • Maryland Institute College of Art
  • Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • Mount Holyoke College
  • Museum of Fine Arts (Boston)
  • Museum of Modern Art
  • Museums
  • National Academy of Design
  • New York Academy of Fine Arts
  • New York University
  • Normal Schools
  • Nova Scotia Teachers College
  • Penn State University
  • Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
  • Philadelphia Museum of Art
  • Philadelphia School of Design for Women
  • Pratt Institute
  • Princeton University
  • Rhode Island School of Design
  • Royal Academy of Art (England)
  • Smith College
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • Stanford University
  • Syracuse University
  • University of Chicago
  • University of Gottingen
  • University of Michigan
  • University of Vermont
  • University of Virginia
  • Vassar College
  • Wellesley College
  • Yale
  • Organizations
  • Any Organization
  • Alliance for Arts Education
  • Art for Schools Association
  • Association of Experimental Schools
  • Boston Public School Art League
  • Canadian Society for Education through Art
  • Chicago Public School Art Society
  • College Art Association
  • Committee on Art Education
  • Eastern Art Teachers Association
  • Eastern Arts Association
  • Federated Council on Art Education
  • International Society for Education Through Art (INSEA)
  • MOMA Department of Education
  • Naitonal Committee on Art Education
  • National Art Education Association
  • National Association for Art Education
  • National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
  • National Education Association
  • National Endowment for the Arts
  • National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education
  • National Society for the Study of Education
  • New York Municipal Art Society
  • Omega Workshops
  • Owatonna Art Education Project
  • Prang Educational Company
  • Progressive Education Association
  • School Art League (New York)
  • State Departments of Education
  • UNESCO
  • Western Drawing Teachers Association
  • Publications
  • Any Publication
  • Art Curricula/Curriculum(s)
  • Dissertations
  • Magazines
  • Manuals
  • Reports
  • Text books
  • Children/Adolsecents
  • Any Child/Adolescent
  • Adolescent development
  • Child development
  • Children's art
  • Art Forms
  • Any Art Form
  • Architecture
  • Design
  • Domestic Arts
  • Drawing
  • Integrated Art(s)
  • Life drawing
  • Painting
  • Photography
  • Sculpture
  • Traditional Crafts
  • Movements
  • Any Movement
  • Academic training
  • Aesthetic Movement
  • American Child Study Movement
  • Apprentice system
  • Arts and Crafts Movement
  • Arts Propel
  • Bauhaus Movement
  • Chautauqua Movement
  • Child Study Movement
  • Creativity Movement
  • Cubist Movement
  • Dadaism
  • Design Education
  • Discipline based Art Education
  • Expressionism
  • Futurist Movement
  • Guild Schools of Art
  • Impressionism
  • Inquiry Movement
  • Neo-Primitivism
  • Oswego Movement
  • Picture Study Movement
  • Progressive Education Movement
  • Project Zero
  • School Decoration Movement
  • Secessionist Movement
  • Visual Culture

1951

The International Society for Education through Art (INSEA) was founded by UNESCO in Bristol, England, with the guidance of Herbert Read. The purpose of INSEA was to provide periodic forums for art educators interested in the philosophy, objectives, curricula, and methodology of art education, within an international framework. Tri-yearly meetings were held on a national and regional basis. Americans who have served as presidents were Edwin Ziegfeld, Al Hurwitz, and Elliot Eisner. Florence Cane, The Artists in Each of Us. Cane's book made connections between art therapy and the talented child through a series of case studies. Mildred Landis, Meaningful Art Education, a textbook based on theories of John Dewey. A doctoral dissertation from Harvard. Rosabel MacDonald, published Art as Education. The Canadian art educator Charles D. Gaitskell discussed the problem of motivation for picture making and writes of the power to picture making to clarify thoughts and feelings. Charles Dudley Gaitskell, director of art for the Ontario Ministry of Education, Canada, from the mid-1940's to his retirement in 1973, was invited by UNESCO to direct a seminar in Bristol, UK. It led to the formation of the International Society for Education through Art (INSEA) and set the stage for establishing a Canadian version.

1940 - 1945

One of Picasso's most quoted statements was "When I was the age of these children, I could paint like Raphael. It took me many years to learn how to paint like these children." Picasso said this to Sir Herbert Read at one of the British Council's Fine Arts Committee's series of international exhibitions of children’s art held in Paris. Read's involvement in these exhibitions reflected his belief as the (INSEA) International Society for Educational Art's first president in the role he thought that exchanges of student art could play in improving relationships among countries.

1933

The Owatonna Project became a classic example of social reconstructionist or practical life centered curriculum. Not only does The Owatonna's high school offer a strong art program but it responded to the needs of the citizenry, promoting and advising on home decorations, art in public places, landscaping, and even window display, thus demonstrating that art can be public as well as private and personal as well as utilitarian, and that art teachers are capable of raising the general aesthetic level of an entire community. One of the teachers was Edwin Zeigfeld, later to become the first president of INSEA; head of the department of art education at Teacher's College, Columbia University; and author of Today's Art. The Owatonna Project lost its impact at the onset of World War II but retained its importance as an historic landmark in art education. NEA reinstated its Art Department. Adolf Hitler increased the number of art teachers in German schools. This increase permitted art teachers to spend more time studying German art of the Middle Ages, using Nazi symbols, slogans, and subjects related to war. Wartime art education lent a conservative political tone to the German Musiche, a program that included all of the arts. School Arts published graded texts for the elementary school, featuring sequenced lessons for correlation with other school activities. Language of form, arrangement, lines, proportion, color, picture study, tests on color skills, knowledge, and observation. In 1930, Clare Reynolds attended a lecture by Franz Cizek in Vienna. She was so impressed by Cizek she writes Child Art In the Vienna School in Vienna, wherein she described his use of slides which show visual development from ages two to eight years of age. Cizek asked his audience to attempt to paint as though they are six years old to better empathize with their students.

Back to Full ListSearch