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  • Visual Culture

1893-1895

Educational and Industrial Drawing: London S. Thompson. Boston: D.C. Heath & Company. Manual Training Series (two manuals), Primary Free Hand Series and Manual, Advanced Free Hand Series (four drawing books), Model and Object Series and Manual (Manual 1895), Aesthetic Series (six drawing books and manual) No. 2 Drawing book, Mechanical Series (six drawing books and manual).

2006

Advanced Placement Program in art begun in 1970 evaluated twenty-seven thousand portfolios with over a hundred art teachers to grade the portfolios.

2005

The differences between visual cultures and modernist art education was stated succinctly by Olivia Gude writing in Art Education: The Journal of the NAEA. Instead of drawing from elements and principles of art (line, form, composition, color rhythms, shape, texture, etc.) Gude suggested a new vocabularym one based upon "appropriation, juxtapositions, recontextualisation, layering interaction of image and text, hybridity, gazing and representing.” The fiftieth anniversary of the CSEA was celebrated at the national conference held in Edmonton, Alberta.

2004

In her book Uncovering the History of Children's Drawing and Art, Donna Darling Kelly introduced two paradigms for the study of children's art, which she refers to as the "Mirror and Window." In the former, psychologists regard child art as a lens through which they can learn about the interior mind of a child and in the window, child art was studied and enjoyed for its aesthetic and artistic values. These two views are related to one of art education's perennial debates regarding product (the degree of success of an artwork) versus process, (the personal values gained by the child while executing the work.) Samuel Hope, a music educator, in his article "Art Education in a World of Class Purposes" took a stand against negative aspects of youth culture such as the desire for simplicity and sensation, rejection of any sort of evaluations and problems posed by the use of drugs and the substitution of slogans for serious discussion. Peter London and George Czekely exemplified alternate philosophies of art education. London for his belief in the spiritual nature of artistic expression, and Czekely for his use of theatrical activity rituals and unconventional forms of motivation. Peter London's third book Drawing Closer to Nature presented a holistic paradigm of art education that stressed the spiritual nature of artistic creativity. His ideas were developed in classroom situations with the support and assistance of Karen Carrol, Dean of Art Education at the Maryland Institute College of Art.

2001

Gene Blocker directed a conference to define the meaning or meanings of multi-cultural issues in art education. The proceedings were published in the "Journal of Aesthetic Education" and make a valuable contribution to the professional literature of art education. Professional gatherings often provided major sources of information not readily available in conventional literature. Example, the Penn State Seminar (1965) which moved to be an antecedent of the Discipline Based Art Educators movement and "The Arts in Their Infancy" held at the Maryland Institute College of Art.

1997

The second National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the visual arts employed a wider range of assessment items, following national developments in educational evaluation which feature "authentic" approaches to assessment.

1996

Secondary art teachers could become National Board Certified. By 1999 there were nearly one hundred NBC art teachers in states across the country. National Board Certification was available for elementary as well as secondary art teachers in 2000.

1994

In the largest art education reform initiative to date, six art education institutes established since 1988 in Florida, Minnesota, Nebraska, Ohio, Tennessee, and Texas by the Getty Center for Education in the Arts supported discipline-based art programs in more than two hundred school districts in fifteen states, reaching close to a million students in kindergarten through twelfth grades. The institutes were based on findings from the Los Angeles Getty Institute for Educators on the Visual Arts (1982-1989), which served 1,300 teachers in twenty-one school districts in the Los Angeles area.

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