In her book Uncovering the History of Children's Drawing and Art, Donna Darling Kelly introduced two paradigms for the study of children's art, which she refers to as the "Mirror and Window." In the former, psychologists regard child art as a lens through which they can learn about the interior mind of a child and in the window, child art was studied and enjoyed for its aesthetic and artistic values. These two views are related to one of art education's perennial debates regarding product (the degree of success of an artwork) versus process, (the personal values gained by the child while executing the work.) Samuel Hope, a music educator, in his article "Art Education in a World of Class Purposes" took a stand against negative aspects of youth culture such as the desire for simplicity and sensation, rejection of any sort of evaluations and problems posed by the use of drugs and the substitution of slogans for serious discussion. Peter London and George Czekely exemplified alternate philosophies of art education. London for his belief in the spiritual nature of artistic expression, and Czekely for his use of theatrical activity rituals and unconventional forms of motivation. Peter London's third book Drawing Closer to Nature presented a holistic paradigm of art education that stressed the spiritual nature of artistic creativity. His ideas were developed in classroom situations with the support and assistance of Karen Carrol, Dean of Art Education at the Maryland Institute College of Art.