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Explore the Timeline

About the Project

In the years before he died Al Hurwitz worked on a timeline project which grew into mammoth proportions. He would call friends and colleagues exhorting them to provide entries, particularly those from overseas, in which he was particularly interested. There was, perhaps, no one better than Al to undertake a task of this size for he had read most of the significant material pertaining to art education as he undertook the eight revisions of his influential book Children and their Art; moreover, he was able to draw upon the knowledge of a multitude of overseas friends from his time as President of INSEA and with his wife Helen was a warm and entertaining host to anyone and everyone who counted in art education from almost anywhere. One has the impression that he had read and been everywhere and now bequeaths his insights and knowledge to us.

Yet, this project is more than a simple enumeration of dates and happenings for Al intersperses his own takes on events in the field with the inclusion of significant moments from world history as signposts of their times, beginning in 400BC. Many of the entries are rich and elaborate, some straight forwardly descriptive, some more interpretive, while others are more sketchy as if waiting for him to return to their development. Here too we find Al’s own fascination with movies, music, literature and important discoveries which like threads enclose art educational events with a more personal cultural significance. Al died in 2012 and the entries to the Timeline close in 2007 when the physical act of writing became very difficult for him (he never did take to computers).

The Timeline Project is presented here much as Al left it when he died and with only minimal editing. We present it in the hopes that it will be useful to colleagues in the field but with the reminder/warning that to date there has been only minimal fact checking-this is very much Al’s take on things!  Fact checking we undertake as our project in his honor at Teachers College through the work we do in the history of art education. We will make revisions as we go along and will continue to expand the index so that unheralded items maybe brought to light. We also invite our colleagues to offer their revisions or new items by submitting them to Arted@exchange.tc.columbia.edu for inclusion.

Credits

Acknowledgements

This online publication of the Timeline of Art Education was first authored by the distinguished art educator, Al Hurwitz shortly before his passing. His writing of these events were compiled by his son-in-law, Bill Pullman, and given to Teachers College faculty. It then became a seed idea spawned during editing of the written draft. Adrienne D'Angelo, first editor of the work, EdD student in Art & Art Education and research assistant to Judith M. Burton proposed that the Timeline of Art Education become an online resource that could morph into a collaborative multi-authored informational source on the vast history of art education including from overseas. As history continues to create itself and expand, so too can the lens that Al Hurwitz had on it into a wider ranging viewpoint from and for all. We present this to you and welcome your input and inquiry for a collaborative publication on the history of our field.

Credits

Author: Al Hurwitz
Compilation of written material: Bill Pullman
Editor: Judith M. Burton
Editor and creator of online publication: Adrienne D'Angelo
Editor, indexing and fact checking: Lisa Jo Sagolla
Website: CHIPS

Website maintenance and oversight: Program in Art and Art Education, Teachers College Columbia University

Published: October 2014

For inquiries, questions or comments please contact: arted@exchange.tc.columbia.edu

Timeline Entries

2006

The 50th Anniversary of the textbook Children and Their Art by Charles Gaitskill, Al Hurwitz and Mickey Day (in later editions) was celebrated. This makes Children and Their Art the art education text with the greatest longevity. It was the most read and least quoted text in the field as opposed to John Dewey who was the most quoted least read figure in art education.

2006

Advanced Placement Program in art begun in 1970 evaluated twenty-seven thousand portfolios with over a hundred art teachers to grade the portfolios.

2006

For more details on Canada art education history see From Drawing to Visual Culture: A History of Art Education in Canada, edited by Harold Pearse (2006) and published by McGill-Queen's University Press: Montreal & Kingston, London, Ithaca.

2005

The differences between visual cultures and modernist art education was stated succinctly by Olivia Gude writing in Art Education: The Journal of the NAEA. Instead of drawing from elements and principles of art (line, form, composition, color rhythms, shape, texture, etc.) Gude suggested a new vocabularym one based upon "appropriation, juxtapositions, recontextualisation, layering interaction of image and text, hybridity, gazing and representing.” The fiftieth anniversary of the CSEA was celebrated at the national conference held in Edmonton, Alberta.

2004

In her book Uncovering the History of Children's Drawing and Art, Donna Darling Kelly introduced two paradigms for the study of children's art, which she refers to as the "Mirror and Window." In the former, psychologists regard child art as a lens through which they can learn about the interior mind of a child and in the window, child art was studied and enjoyed for its aesthetic and artistic values. These two views are related to one of art education's perennial debates regarding product (the degree of success of an artwork) versus process, (the personal values gained by the child while executing the work.) Samuel Hope, a music educator, in his article "Art Education in a World of Class Purposes" took a stand against negative aspects of youth culture such as the desire for simplicity and sensation, rejection of any sort of evaluations and problems posed by the use of drugs and the substitution of slogans for serious discussion. Peter London and George Czekely exemplified alternate philosophies of art education. London for his belief in the spiritual nature of artistic expression, and Czekely for his use of theatrical activity rituals and unconventional forms of motivation. Peter London's third book Drawing Closer to Nature presented a holistic paradigm of art education that stressed the spiritual nature of artistic creativity. His ideas were developed in classroom situations with the support and assistance of Karen Carrol, Dean of Art Education at the Maryland Institute College of Art.

2003

Michael Parsons reviewed the history of theories of artistic development and concluded that the linear models of Piaget and Lowenfeld cannot be defended in postmodern contexts. In its stead, he argued Parsons' change in children's art resembled a tree with many branches rather than a single path of growth, which was shaped by western, modern goals based upon a realistic depiction of the world. "Endpoint, Repertoires and Toolboxes. Development in Art as the Acquisitions of Tools." Tools were used as a metaphor for the diversity of conditions that influenced change in child art.

2002

In Art and Cognition Arthur Efland, like many of his colleagues, was concerned about the acquisition of knowledge and the multiple ways of gaining artistic comprehension. Cognition and inquiry were both major concerns in the 1950's. In the case of cognitive theory, the impetus came from Jean Piaget and Barbel Inhelder, psychologists who worked outside the the art education establishment, and Arthur Efland and Elliot Eisner who wrote from within the field.

2001

Gene Blocker directed a conference to define the meaning or meanings of multi-cultural issues in art education. The proceedings were published in the "Journal of Aesthetic Education" and make a valuable contribution to the professional literature of art education. Professional gatherings often provided major sources of information not readily available in conventional literature. Example, the Penn State Seminar (1965) which moved to be an antecedent of the Discipline Based Art Educators movement and "The Arts in Their Infancy" held at the Maryland Institute College of Art.

2001

Phil Pearson's Towards a Theory of Children's Drawing as Social Practice (article). The author moved the psychologically based background of drawing to a social arena preferring to explore the reasons children draw to play, seek approval, pursue a particular interest, love of narrative and coping with boredom and all serving specific functions.

2000

Phyllis Gold Gluck wrote the only study of the Educational Alliance, the major art school for immigrants and their children in Remembering Others: Making Invisible Histories of Art Education Visible (Bolin, Blank and Congdon.)

1999

NAEA published Standards for Art Teacher Preparation, a document that discussed requirements for quality art teacher education programs, preparation of faculty, and knowledge and skills new art teachers will need as they enter the teaching profession.

1999

Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning. Editor Ted Fisk. Published by the arts educational partnership and the presidents committee on the arts and humanties. Contains research based studies examining the issue of transfer from arts based academic disciplines. Reports by: James Caterall, Shirley Bryce Heath, Judith M. Burton, Robert Horowitz, and Hal Abeles, Steve Seidel, and Benny Wolf.

1997

The second National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the visual arts employed a wider range of assessment items, following national developments in educational evaluation which feature "authentic" approaches to assessment.

1996

Secondary art teachers could become National Board Certified. By 1999 there were nearly one hundred NBC art teachers in states across the country. National Board Certification was available for elementary as well as secondary art teachers in 2000.

1994

National voluntary standards in the arts were developed by the three arts education associations the American Alliance for Theatre & Education, Music Educators National Conference, and the National Art Education Association> in conjunction with a movement for standards in all areas of the school curriculum.

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